Natural Home Cures Mangosteen Xanthones: Alpha-mangostin and Gamma-mangostin



Among the 56+ mangosteen xanthones found in the whole mangosteen fruit, alpha-mangosteen and gamma-mangostin have been the main subject of many studies by mangosteen researchers around the world.(1) These two mangosteen xanthones have been shown to be very effective as anti-inflammatory agents. One research study showed that the mangosteen xanthones were, even more, potent than several anti-inflammatory medications used for arthritis and gout.(2) (Clinical, Academic and Medical Laboratory Testing Only - No Long Term Human Testing Was Performed In This Study)

The xanthones found in mangosteen are know to stop inflammation by inhibiting the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme and blocking the process that leads to inflammation.(3) These xanthones achieve this without affecting the blood's clotting mechanism or damaging the stomach lining (causing ulcers) as most anti-inflammatory medications do. One study documented that the mangosteen xanthones helped heal stomach ulcers.(4)

Alpha-mangostin: a xanthone derivative from the mangosteen. It was found by scientists to have effective chemopreventive effects in their short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay system.(5) Their findings suggest that longer exposure to alpha-mangostin may suppress the development of tumors. In another study on alpha-mangostin's effects on human leukemia cells, results indicated that alpha-mangostin would be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cancer.(6) (Clinical, Academic and Medical Laboratory Testing Only - No Human Cancer Patients Were Used In This Study)

Alpha-mangostin was also proven to have strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Scientists demonstrated alpha-mangostin's activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. They found that alpha-mangostin, alone or in combination with gentamicin, against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and used in combination with vancomycin hydrochloride against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) might be useful in controlling VRE and MRSA infections.(7)

Further studies showed that alpha-mangostin works well with and enhances the effects of other commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin and minocycline. In laboratory experiments, scientists studied the antimicrobial activity of alpha-mangostin and found that it possesses strong inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.(8) Researchers also found that alpha-mangostin is a histaminergic receptor-blocking agent; alpha-mangostin is effective in preventing or stopping allergies.(9)

Gamma-mangostin: Scientists demonstrated that gamma-mangostin proved to be a stronger antioxidant than other compounds long known for their antioxidant properties.(10) Medical researchers in Thailand and Taiwan discovered that gamma-mangostin was shown to have even more potent antioxidant activity than vitamin E, one of the most powerful antioxidants known to science. Even more than just being powerful antioxidants, gamma-mangostin may be able to help with a wide variety of major health issues.

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad" cholesterol) is one of the main causes of atherosclerosis and heart disease. Lower levels of LDL means lower chances of getting heart disease. Australian scientists studied gamma-mangostin in experiments using LDL and powerful oxidants. Their study showed that gamma-mangostin successfully protected the LDL from oxidation by free radicals.(11) This helps prevent the creation of plaques and the clogging of arteries that lead to heart disease. Moreover, gamma-mangostin may provide the benefit of lowering LDL without the potentially serious side effects of anti-cholesterol medications, such as liver and muscle-tissue damage or drug-induced hepatitis.

Gamma-mangosteen has been proven to be a very effective anti-inflammatory agent. Scientists have shown that it significantly slowed down the body's production of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, a key player for inflammatory conditions.(12) Controlling COX-2 production has been found to be an important factor in reducing inflammation and pain. (Clinical, Academic and Medical Laboratory Testing Only - No Long Term Human Testing Was Performed In This Study).

Japanese scientists led by K. Nakatani concluded that gamma-mangostin would be a new useful lead compound for the development of anti-inflammatory medications.(13) Gamma-mangostin helps stop inflammation by inhibiting the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme that leads to inflammation. One highly prized property gamma-mangostin possesses is its ability to provide this benefit without affecting blood clotting or damaging the stomach lining, two of the potential side effects caused by most anti-inflammatory medications. Scientists also demonstrated that gamma-mangostin limits the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme without causing ulcers.(14) In fact, their study showed that gamma-mangostin even helped heal stomach ulcers. (Clinical, Academic and Medical Laboratory Testing Only - No Long Term Human Testing Was Performed In This Study)

One study also suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of gamma-mangostin on brain cells may have the potential in addressing inflammatory conditions of the brain.(15) Alzheimer's is one example of these inflammatory conditions. About 150 million people worldwide have asthma, and about 40 percent of people in developed countries suffer from allergies. Several studies have shown gamma-mangostin as a possible natural antihistamine that can be used to treat allergies such as asthma and psoriasis.(16) In another study, Japanese scientists found that gamma-mangostin is a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist in the central nervous system which indicates it has potential for helping with depression and/or other anxiety symptoms.(17) The power of gamma-mangostin to help with a variety of health issues, as well as its unique anti-inflammatory properties, makes it one of the most admired xanthones in mangosteen.

 

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     Source References
(1) US National Library of Medicine - Bioaccessibility, Biotransformation, Transport Mangostin
(2) Agricultural Food Chemistry - Bioavailability Antioxidant Effects Xanthone-Rich Mangosteen
(3) Sigma Aldrich - Inhibition Cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis By Gamma-Mangostin
(4) PubMed - Role of gastric mucus secretion, sulfhydryl groups on gastroprotection (xanthones)
(5) PubMed - Anti-Cancer Effects Of Xanthones From Pericarps Of Mangosteen
(6) PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Extracts As Natural Chemopreventive Anticancer Drugs
(7) PubMed - Antibacterial Activity Of Alpha-Mangostin Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
(8) PubMed - Potent Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
(9) PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Mitigate Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation Of Asthma
(10) Sigma - Aldrich - Gamma-mangostin
(11) Toxnet - Mangostin
(12) Sigma Aldrich - Inhibition Cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis By Gamma-Mangostin
(13) Phyto Science - Anti-inflammatory - Invivo
(14) Memorial Sloan Kettering - Mangosteen
(15) US National Library of Medicine - Multifunctional Effects of Mangosteen Pericarp on Cognition
(16) Drugs - Mangosteen
(17) PubMed - Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist


Source References

  • "Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)". J. Agric. Food Chem. PMID 16536578.
  • "Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives". Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. PMID 314790.
  • Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
  • Alternative pathways of xanthone biosynthesis in cell cultures L. Werner Schmidt and Ludger Beerhues, FEBS Letters, Volume 420
  • Tomentonone, a new xanthonoid from the stem bark of Calophyllum tomentosum. Banerji A., Deshpande A. D., Prabhu B. R. and Padmanava P., Journal of natural products, 1994, vol. 57, no3,
  • Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Boskou Dimitrios, Trends in Food Science & Technology 17 (2006) 505–512, doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.00
  • Clinical Guide to Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Disease Management. ISBN 0-443-07193-4.
  • "Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of the Natural Polyphenol Chlorogenic Acid". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29: 2236–40. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.2236.